Pediatric superior vena cava syndrome: An evidence-based systematic review of the literature
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Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) results in vascular, respiratory, and neurologic compromise. A systematic search was conducted to determine the prevalence of pediatric SVCS subtypes and identify clinical characteristics/treatment strategies that may influence overall outcomes. Data from 101 case reports/case series (142 patients) were analyzed. Morbidity (30%), mortality (18%), and acute complications (55%) were assessed as outcomes. Thrombosis was present in 36%, with multi-modal anticoagulation showing improved outcome by >50% (P = 0.004). Infant age (P = 0.04), lack of collaterals (P = 0.007), acute complications (P = 0.005), and clinical presentation may have prognostic utility that could influence clinical decisions and surveillance practices in pediatric SVCS.
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