Single-stranded DNA molecules with ligand-binding ability and catalytic function, referred to as DNA aptamers and DNA enzymes, respectively, are special DNA sequences isolated from random-sequence DNA libraries by “in vitro selection”. These two new classes of artificial DNA molecules have the potential of being used as molecular tools in a variety of innovative applications ranging from biosensing to gene regulation. Our laboratory is interested in engineering fluorescence-signaling DNA aptamers and DNA enzymes that can be widely exploited for detection-directed applications. In this article, we will first discuss our recent efforts on the rational design of a new class of signaling aptamers denoted “structure- switching signaling aptamers”, which report target binding by switching structures from DNA/DNA duplex to DNA/target complex. We will then describe the in vitro selection of fluorescence-signaling DNA enzymes that exhibit a synchronized catalysis-signaling capability by cleaving a chimeric RNA/DNA substrate at the lone RNA linkage surrounded by closely spaced fluorophore-quencher pair. Potential utilities of these signaling DNA molecules will also be discussed.