Coagulation Disorders and Blood Product Use in Patients Undergoing Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
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Repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) is associated with major blood loss, often exceeding the patient's intravascular volume, and complex intraoperative and postoperative coagulopathies necessitating large-volume transfusion of blood products. Abnormalities sufficient to cause thrombocytopenia or clinically important prolongation of clotting parameters are rarely present before surgery in elective aneurysms but are more common with ruptured aneurysms. The finding of intraoperative and postoperative deficiencies of clotting factors, along with thrombin generation and activation of the thrombolytic system, is reflective of massive blood losses, visceral ischemia, and massive transfusions. An aggressive strategy of transfusion of blood products is critical to the prevention of clinically significant coagulopathy during surgery. Adjuncts to reduce blood losses and blood product use include low-dose aprotinin or epsilon -aminocaproic acid, intraoperative blood salvaging, and acute normovolemic hemodilution. In TAAA repair, an average blood loss of 5000 to 6000 mL and average transfusion of allogeneic blood products of 50 to 60 U are to be anticipated.
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