Worsening Renal Function and Outcome in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction and the Impact of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Treatment
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BACKGROUND: Worsening renal function (WRF) associated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition does not confer excess risk in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between WRF and outcomes in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and the interaction with RAAS blockade. METHODS: In 3,595 patients included in the I-PRESERVE (Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and development of WRF after initiation of irbesartan or placebo were examined. We examined the association between WRF and the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (primary outcome in this analysis) and the interaction with randomized treatment. RESULTS: Estimated GFR decreased early with irbesartan treatment and remained significantly lower than in the placebo group. WRF developed in 229 (6.4%) patients and occurred more frequently with irbesartan treatment (8% vs. 4%). Overall, WRF was associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.85; p = 0.008). Although the risk related to WRF was greater in the irbesartan group (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.28; p = 0.002) than with placebo (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.66 to 1.79; p = 0.73), the interaction between treatment and WRF on outcome was not significant in an adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of WRF in HFpEF was similar to that previously reported in HFrEF but more frequent with irbesartan than with placebo. WRF after initiation of irbesartan treatment in HFpEF was associated with excess risk, in contrast to WRF occurring with RAAS blockade in HFrEF.
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