The effects of parental carbamazepine and gemfibrozil exposure on sexual differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
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The effects of parental exposure to pharmaceuticals on sexual differentiation in F1 offspring were examined in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 or 10 μg/L of carbamazepine or gemfibrozil for 6 wk and bred in pairwise crosses to generate 7 distinct lineages. Lineages were formed with both parents from the same treatment group or with only one parent exposed, to delineate between maternal and paternal effects. The F1 offspring from each lineage were reared in clean water and sampled at 45 and 60 d post fertilization (dpf). Gonadal differentiation was assessed by histology. The morphological stages of the gonads were converted to a quantitative day-equivalent based on data from offspring of untreated parents sampled from 15 to 75 dpf, which enabled a quantitative statistical analysis on the timing of sexual differentiation. Paternal, but not maternal, exposure to carbamazepine resulted in significantly faster sexual differentiation and a male-biased sex ratio; these effects were not observed when both parents were exposed. Combined paternal and maternal exposure to gemfibrozil resulted in significantly faster sexual differentiation, and paternal, but not maternal, exposure to gemfibrozil led to male-biased sex ratios. The present study demonstrates the ability of parental exposure to pharmaceuticals to disrupt sexual differentiation in the F1 offspring and also shows that effects may be uniquely influenced by which parent was exposed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1696-1706. © 2018 SETAC.
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