Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in a proteomic legacy in adult gills. Part B; the effect of a second radiation dose, after one year, on the proteomic responses in the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander fish
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This study extends the investigation of the legacy effects of exposure to a single radiation dose at one of four early life stages, in adult rainbow trout (Part A), by examining the effects of a second identical dose after one year; i.e. egg 48 h after fertilisation (48 h egg) + 1 year, eyed egg + 1 year, yolk sac larvae (YSL) + 1 year and first feeder + 1 year. This included the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated trout which had swam with the irradiated fish. The second radiation dose negated any beneficial proteomic responses following early life stage irradiation only, particularly irradiation of 48 h eggs and eyed eggs (Part A). Instead the responses after early life stage + 1 year irradiation are consistently associated with tumorigenesis, cancer progression, or are otherwise damaging: upregulation of alpha-globin 1 (YSL + 1 year and first feeders + 1 year) and downregulation of histone H1, type II keratin, malate dehydrogenase 2-2, Na/K ATPase alpha subunit isoform 1b, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (48 h egg + 1 year), electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha (eyed egg + 1 year), 60 S ribosomal protein L30 (YSL + 1 year) and haemoglobin subunit beta-4 (first feeder + 1 year). Most significantly the second radiation dose also negated the overwhelmingly beneficial bystander effect proteomic responses induced by trout irradiated at an early life stage only (Part A). Instead the bystander effect proteomic changes induced by trout irradiated at an early life stage and again at 1 year have been associated with uncertain, with respect to tumorigenesis, or detrimental effects; upregulation of alpha-globin 1 (YSL + 1 year and first feeder + 1 year) and downregulation of malate dehydrogenase 2-2, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (48 h egg + 1 year), transferrin precursor (eyed egg + 1 year), 60 S ribosomal protein L30 (YSL + 1 year) and serine / threonine-protein phosphatase 2 A 65 kDa (first feeder + 1 year). This difference between the bystander effect induced proteomic changes following early life stage irradiation only and early life stage + 1 year irradiation may indicate a fundamental change in the non-targeted effects of radiation following multiple exposure to radiation.