Impact of baseline clinical and laboratory features on the risk of thrombosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A prospective evaluation
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BACKGROUND: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased risk of thromboembolism (TE). However, the predictors of ALL-associated TE are as yet uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory, prospective cohort study evaluated the effects of clinical (age, gender, ALL risk group) and laboratory variables (hematological parameters, ABO blood group, inherited and acquired prothrombotic defects [PDs]) at diagnosis on the development of symptomatic TE (sTE) in children (aged 1 to ≤18) treated on the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL 05-001 study. PROCEDURES: Samples collected prior to the start of ALL therapy were evaluated for genetic and acquired PDs (proteins C and S, antithrombin, procoagulant factors VIII (FVIII:C), IX, XI and von Willebrand factor antigen levels, gene polymorphisms of factor V G1691A, prothrombin gene G20210A and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, anticardiolipin antibodies, fasting lipoprotein(a), and homocysteine). RESULTS: Of 131 enrolled patients (mean age [range] 6.4 [1-17] years) 70 were male patients and 20 patients (15%) developed sTE. Acquired or inherited PD had no impact on the risk of sTE. Multivariable analyses identified older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.26) and non-O blood group (OR 3.64, 95% CI: 1.06, 12.51) as independent predictors for development of sTE. Patients with circulating blasts had higher odds of developing sTE (OR 6.66; 95% CI: 0.82, 53.85). CONCLUSION: Older age, non-O blood group, and presence of circulating blasts, but not PDs, predicted the risk of sTE during ALL therapy. We recommend evaluation of these novel risk factors in the development of ALL-associated TE. If confirmed, these easily accessible variables at diagnosis can help develop a risk-prediction model for ALL-associated TE.
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