Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS): replication and extension of psychometric properties in youth with chronic tic disorders (CTDs)
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Individuals with chronic tic disorders (CTDs) frequently describe aversive subjective sensory sensations that precede their tics. The first aim of the present study was to explore the psychometric properties of a standardized self-report measure to assess premonitory urges in CTDs, The Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS), by replicating the analyses of Woods et al. (J Dev Behav Pediatr 26:397-403, 2005) using a sample twice the size of theirs. The second aim was to conduct an exploratory factor analysis of the PUTS. Eighty-four youth with CTDs, recruited from a pediatric OCD and tic specialty clinic, completed the PUTS while their caregivers completed The Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ) and a demographic measure. Consistent with (Woods et al. J Dev Behav Pediatr 26:397-403, 2005), the PUTS was found to be internally consistent (α = 0.82) and significantly correlated with overall tic severity as measured by the PTQ (r = 0.24, p < 0.05) as well as the PTQ number (r = 0.34, p < 0.01) and intensity (r = 0.24, p < 0.05) subscales. A factor-analysis of the PUTS revealed a two-factor solution with one factor capturing the quality of premonitory sensations while the other factor assessed the overall intensity of the urges. These results support the use of the PUTS in reliably measuring premonitory urges, particularly in children over the age of 10 years. Additionally, these findings highlight that urges are uniformly reported across gender and age and are more closely associated with number of tics than the frequency or intensity of tics.
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