Rogue periodic waves
stand for rogue waves on a periodic background. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the focusing case admits two families of periodic wave solutions expressed by the Jacobian elliptic functions
. Both periodic waves are modulationally unstable with respect to long-wave perturbations. Exact solutions for the rogue periodic waves are constructed by using the explicit expressions for the periodic eigenfunctions of the Zakharov–Shabat spectral problem and the Darboux transformations. These exact solutions generalize the classical rogue wave (the so-called Peregrine’s breather). The magnification factor of the rogue periodic waves is computed as a function of the elliptic modulus. Rogue periodic waves constructed here are compared with the rogue wave patterns obtained numerically in recent publications.