Pregnancy-induced hypertension and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is associated with preterm delivery but its independent impact on neonatal outcomes remains unclear. We sought to systematically review and meta-analyze clinical outcomes of preterm infants <37 weeks' gestation born to mothers with and without PIH. STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched from January 2000 to October 2016. Studies with low-moderate risk of bias reporting neonatal outcomes based on PIH as primary exposure variable were included. Data were extracted independently by two co-authors. RESULTS: PIH was associated with lower mortality (3 studies; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.79), lower severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (2 studies; aOR 0.83; 0.72 to 0.96) and lower severe brain injury (2 studies; unadjusted OR (uOR) 0.57; 0.49 to 0.66). No association between PIH and short-term respiratory outcomes, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was identified. In subgroup analysis among infants <29 weeks' gestation, BPD odds were higher (3 studies; aOR 1.15; 1.06 to 1.26), whereas mortality lower (2 studies; aOR 0.73; 0.69 to 0.77). In subgroup analysis limited to severe PIH, odds of mortality (3 studies; uOR 2.36; 1.07 to 5.22) and invasive ventilation (3 studies; uOR 3.26; 1.11 to 9.61) were higher. In subgroup analysis limited to preeclampsia, odds of BPD (3 studies; uOR 1.21; 95% CI:1.03 to 1.43) and NEC were higher (3 studies; uOR 2.79; 95% CI:1.57 to 4.96). CONCLUSION: PIH was associated with reduced odds of mortality and ROP (all infants), but higher odds for BPD (<29 weeks' gestation). The paradoxical reduction in mortality may be due to survival bias and deserves further exploration in future studies.
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