Rivaroxaban reversal with prothrombin complex concentrate or tranexamic acid in healthy volunteers
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Essentials Specific reversal agents for managing severe factor Xa inhibitor-associated bleeding are lacking. We assessed 4-factor-prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) and tranexamic acid (TXA). 4F-PCC, but not TXA, reduced the prothrombin time and increased endogenous thrombin potential. These agents may be viable options for reversal of therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. SUMMARY: Background Oral activated factor X inhibitors such as rivaroxaban are widely used, but specific reversal agents are lacking. Although four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) and tranexamic acid (TXA) are sometimes used to manage serious bleeding, their efficacy is unknown. Prior studies in healthy subjects taking rivaroxaban revealed that 4F-PCC partially reverses the prolonged prothrombin time (PT), and fully restores the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). The effect of TXA has not been evaluated. Methods In this double-blind, parallel-group study, 147 healthy volunteers given rivaroxaban 20 mg twice daily for 3 days were randomized after their morning dose on day 4 to receive intravenous 4F-PCC (50 IU kg-1 ), TXA (1.0 g), or saline. Standardized punch biopsies were performed at baseline and after 4F-PCC, TXA or saline administration. Reversal was assessed by measuring bleeding duration and bleeding volume at biopsy sites, and by determining the PT and ETP. Results As compared with saline, 4F-PCC partially reversed the PT and completely reversed the ETP, whereas TXA had no effect. Neither 4F-PCC nor TXA reduced bleeding duration or volume. All treatments were well tolerated, with no recorded adverse events. Conclusions Although 4F-PCC reduced the PT and increased the ETP in volunteers given supratherapeutic doses of rivaroxaban, neither 4F-PCC nor TXA influenced punch biopsy bleeding.
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