466 mW green light generation using annealed proton-exchanged periodically poled MgO: LiNbO_3 ridge waveguides
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We report high-power efficient green light generation by frequency doubling from a periodically poled MgO doped LiNbO(3) ridge waveguide. The ridge waveguide is fabricated by the annealed proton-exchanging and precise diamond blade dicing techniques. The ridge structure exhibits a surface roughness of only 3.7 nm, and near-90° vertical sidewall. The total insertion loss of an 8.5 µm wide and 1.4 cm long uncoated waveguide is 3.0 dB under direct fiber coupling. 466 mW of continuous-wave green light with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 69.7% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest green light output power reached to date using a ridge-type LiNbO(3) waveguide device. Phase-matching temperature shift, tuning curve distortion, and waveguide loss increase are observed under high power operation. Our analysis shows that the photorefractive effect and the green induced infrared absorption are responsible for the observed phenomena, which becomes prominent under several megawatt per square centimeter power density.
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