Transplantation of cryopreserved osteochondral dowel allografts for repair of focal articular defects in an ovine model
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The purpose of this study was to test whether successful cryopreservation of osteochondral tissue is possible and whether, with the appropriate surgical procedure, it can be used for the successful repair of focal articular defects within joints. Fresh (nonfrozen) and snap-frozen (plunged in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath at 37 degrees C, repeated three times) autografts were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Snap-frozen, frozen (fresh tissue placed in a freezer at -80 degrees C), and cryopreserved (immersed in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide for 30 minutes and then frozen at 1 degrees C/min to -80 degrees C) allografts were transplanted into the knees of adult sheep. Outcomes were evaluated 3, 6, and 12 months after transplantation. The morphological, histological, biochemical, and biomechanical behaviors and characteristics of the graft cartilage, the host cartilage adjacent to the grafts, and the opposing tibial cartilage were assessed. Freezing protocols that yielded poor chondrocyte recovery after thawing (frozen and snap-frozen) resulted in poor overall graft outcome. The cryopreservation protocol, however, resulted in intermediate recovery (50%) of chondrocytes and in intermediate overall graft outcome compared with fresh autografts. The membrane integrity of the allograft chondrocytes immediately following cryopreservation was identified as the most reliable predictor of long-term outcome of the graft. Further improvements in cryopreservation technique may lead to an effective method of banking osteochondral tissue for successful transplantation for the repair of focal defects and larger joint reconstructions.
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