Marble game with optimal ferroelectric switching
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A low coercivity and, consequently, low hysteresis loss are desired properties for ferroelectric materials used in high-power and high-frequency actuators. The coercive field required for the onset of ferroelectric switching is shown to develop a strong directional anisotropy due to peculiarities of an energy surface associated with the polarization rotation. It is found that the ferroelectric anisotropy exhibits 'hard' and 'easy' switching axes similar to magnetic materials. The hard axis corresponds to 180° polarization reversal, whereas the easy axis favors 90° switching. Our results suggest that the intrinsic low coercivity and the full polarization reversal may not be achieved at the same time under uniaxial excitation. A rotating electric field excitation is proposed in order to circumvent this limitation and to guide the polarization switching along a curved path.
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