Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays
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A comprehensive investigation of real-time temperature-induced resonance shift cancellation for silicon wire based biosensor arrays is reported for the first time. A reference resonator, protected by either a SU8 or SiO(2) cladding layer, is used to track temperature changes. The temperature dependence of resonators in aqueous solutions, pertinent to biosensing applications, is measured under steady-state conditions and the operating parameters influencing these properties are discussed. Real-time measurements show that the reference resonator resonances reflect the temperature changes without noticeable time delay, enabling effective cancellation of temperature-induced shifts. Binding between complementary IgG protein pairs is monitored over 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range down to a concentration of 20 pM, demonstrating a resolvable mass of 40 attograms. Reactions are measured over time periods as long as 3 hours with high stability, showing a scatter corresponding to a fluid refractive index fluctuation of ± 4 × 10(-6) in the baseline data. Sensor arrays with a SU8 protective cladding are easy to fabricate, while oxide cladding is found to provide superior stability for measurements involving long time scales.
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