- Objective: To examine the potential influence of chronic inflammation on peripheral motor nerve function in vivo following spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: This study was part of a randomized, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial. The study included 20 participants with varying levels and severities of SCI randomized (3:2) to either a treatment group, consisting of a 12-week anti-inflammatory diet program, or control group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months and consisted of measures of motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and amplitude as well as markers of inflammation as assessed by various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results: Despite a significant reduction in inflammation in the treatment group, 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant Group × Time interaction for motor NCV (p = .77) or M-wave amplitude (p = .61). Further, the change in motor NCV and M-wave amplitude were not shown to be associated with the change in inflammatory mediators as assessed via a backwards elimination multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: These results suggest that at physiologically relevant concentrations, inflammatory mediators may not have a substantial influence on peripheral motor nerve conduction in vivo following SCI. Future studies may still be warranted to examine the potential for central effects.