Capture and Confinement Stress in White Sucker Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent
- Additional Document Info
- View All
This study evaluates the effects of handling and confinement stress and a 3-day recovery period on a number of biochemical parameters used to monitor exposure of fish to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME). Plasma was collected at four times of the day from male and female white sucker subjected to four levels of handling stress during their spawning migration at a BKME and a reference site. Indicators of a general response to stress (plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and total protein) and of reproductive fitness (plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol) were measured. With the exception of 17 beta-estradiol in females, all of the parameters measured varied with time of day and stress level. The general stress indicators ranged from being highly to marginally responsive to handling and confinement stress and were inconsistent in terms of indicating a site difference. The reproductive steroids were moderately responsive to stress and gave the most consistent site difference with testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels reduced in BKME-exposed fish under low levels of stress. There was limited evidence for recovery from capture, handling, and transport in the spring for plasma cortisol, lactate, and 17 beta-estradiol at the BKME site, plasma glucose at the reference site, and plasma testosterone at both sites. Fish were also more responsive to an additional acute stress on Day 1 and Day 3 of recovery compared to that on Day 0. This study emphasizes the need for standardized methods in field collections and sampling with the least amount of stress possible, and suggests that holding white sucker for 1 or 3 days does not allow them to recover from the stress of capture.
has subject area