During entry into stationary phase, many free-living, gram-negative bacteria express genes that impart cellular resistance to environmental stresses, such as oxidative stress and osmotic stress. Many genes that are required for stationary-phase adaptation are controlled by RpoS, a conserved alternative sigma factor, whose expression is, in turn, controlled by many factors. To better understand the numbers and types of genes dependent upon RpoS, we employed a genetic screen to isolate more than 100 independent RpoS-dependent gene fusions from a bank of several thousand mutants harboring random, independent promoter-
lacZoperon fusion mutations. Dependence on RpoS varied from 2-fold to over 100-fold. The expression of all fusion mutations was normal in an rpoS/rpoS+merodiploid ( rpoSbackground transformed with an rpoS-containing plasmid). Surprisingly, the expression of many RpoS-dependent genes was growth phase dependent, albeit at lower levels, even in an rpoSbackground, suggesting that other growth-phase-dependent regulatory mechanisms, in addition to RpoS, may control postexponential gene expression. These results are consistent with the idea that many growth-phase-regulated functions in Escherichia colido not require RpoS for expression. The identities of the 10 most highly RpoS-dependent fusions identified in this study were determined by DNA sequence analysis. Three of the mutations mapped to otsA, katE, ecnB, and osmY—genes that have been previously shown by others to be highly RpoS dependent. The six remaining highly-RpoS-dependent fusion mutations were located in other genes, namely, gabP, yhiUV, o371, o381, f186, and o215.