The present study reports on the initial development of an instrument to measure role efficacy for interdependent functions and test its conceptual distinctiveness from other forms of efficacy within interdependent teams. Intercollegiate basketball players completed a role efficacy questionnaire on which they reported their confidence in capabilities to perform interdependent role functions within their team’s offensive and defensive systems. They also completed measures of task self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Consistent with predictions, role efficacy and task self-efficacy were moderately related. Role efficacy was also distinct from collective efficacy insofar as the latter perception showed evidence of a shared group perception, whereas role efficacy showed individual-level variance only. Starting players reported greater role efficacy than nonstarters, yet collective efficacy and task self-efficacy were the same regardless of starting status. Together, results supported the initial validity and conceptual distinctiveness of role efficacy within the interdependent sport team environment.