Promoting Self-efficacy and Outcome Expectations to Enable Adherence to Resistance Training After Cardiac Rehabilitation
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Resistance training offers clinical and functional benefits to cardiac patients, yet exercise adherence after cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is problematic. This study examined effects of an intervention targeting self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and adherence to upper-body resistance exercise after CR. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Cardiac patients (N = 40) were randomly allocated to receive either standard exercise recommendations (wait-list control) or an intervention involving a theory-based instructional manual and Thera-Band resistive bands for upper-body resistance exercise. Self-efficacy and outcome expectations were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. Participation in resistance exercise was measured at 4 weeks postbaseline and at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The intervention group reported higher levels of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and resistance exercise volume compared with the control group at the 4-week follow-up. Adherence differences were sustained at 3-month follow-up, with some support that self-efficacy for adhering to resistance training mediated the effects of the intervention on follow-up exercise training frequency. Findings support the use of a theory-based motivational manual and Thera-Band resistive bands to increase self-efficacy and outcome expectations for, and adherence to, resistance training after CR.
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