Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 208 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary angiography or angioplasty were collected before, immediately after, and 4 h after the procedure. Nucleic acids of
Chlamydia pneumoniaeand of cytomegalovirus (CMV) were detected by PCR and confirmed by hybridization. Circulating C. pneumoniaeDNA was identified in 24 patients (11.5%) and was associated with current smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6 to 12.2, P= 0.004) but not with arterial narrowing on coronary angiogram or with serological results positive for C. pneumoniae. Circulating CMV DNA was identified in 36 patients (17.3%) and was associated with anti-CMV immunoglobulin G (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.3, P= 0.02) but not with angiographic arterial narrowing or with the need for revascularization. Neither C. pneumoniaenor CMV DNA detection increased after angioplasty, a procedure in which endothelium is disrupted. Larger prospective studies are needed to determine the prognostic significance of DNA detection.