Multiple Infections and Subsequent Cardiovascular Events in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study
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BACKGROUND: Limited prospective epidemiological data are available on the relation between exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV), individually or as a total pathogen score, and human cardiovascular (CV) disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed enrollment sera from 3168 Canadian patients in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study for antibodies to C pneumoniae, H pylori, CMV, and HAV and measured the relation between serostatus and 494 adjudicated trial outcomes of myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death over 4.5 years of follow-up. CV events were associated with CMV serostatus (covariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.53). Neither C pneumoniae IgG (adjusted HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.68, 1.10), C pneumonia IgA (adjusted HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90, 1.34), H pylori IgG (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.82, 1.19), nor HAV IgG (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.83, 1.24) predicted CV events. Total pathogen score was associated with CV events (adjusted HR for 4 versus 1 or 0=1.41; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.96). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to CMV but not to C pneumoniae, H pylori, or HAV was associated with a slight excess risk of subsequent myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death in HOPE study patients, and total pathogen score based on these infections predicted a small increased hazard of CV events.
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