We present two techniques for sampling mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) without killing individual voles. Total cellular DNA was extracted from small blood samples (100–250 μL) and tail segments (2 cm long) collected from meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Restriction fragment patterns produced by the restriction endonucleases HindIII, BamH1, and EcoR1 after hybridization with a probe of nick-translated mtDNA compared well with standard mtDNA assays. Both techniques can be used in the field, and should prove useful in biochemical taxonomy as well as in investigations of population structure, dispersal, and social interactions on both micro- and macro-geographic scales. The Southern blots produced by these procedures have the added advantage of being reuseable, so that nuclear DNA polymorphisms can be examined with appropriate probes.