Development and Characterization of a Genetic Linkage Map of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms and Other Markers
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A segregating population of single basidiospore isolates from a sexual cross was used to generate the first moderately dense genetic linkage map of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (Serotype D). Polymorphic DNA markers were developed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and gene-encoding sequences. These markers were used to analyze 100 meiotic progeny. All markers were tested for distorted segregation with a goodness of fit test. Of the total of 181 markers, 148 showed balanced (1:1) segregation ratios. Segregation distortion was observed for 33 markers. Based on all the markers, a linkage map was generated that consists of 14 major linkage groups with 127 markers, several small linkage groups, and 2 linkage groups that consist only of highly skewed markers. The genetic distance of the linkage map is 1356.3 cM. The estimated total haploid genome size for C. neoformans var. neoformans was calculated using Hulberts method and yielded a map size of 1917 cM. The number of major linkage groups correlates well with the proposed number of 13 chromosomes for C. neoformans var. neoformans. Several genes, including CAP64, CnLAC, and the mating-type locus, were mapped, and their associations were consistent with published data. To date, 6 linkage groups have been assigned to their corresponding chromosomes. This linkage map should provide a framework for the ongoing genome sequencing project and will be a useful tool for studying the genetics and pathogenicity of this important medical yeast.
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