16-Channel CMOS Impedance Spectroscopy DNA Analyzer With Dual-Slope Multiplying ADCs
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We present a 16-channel, mixed-signal CMOS DNA analyzer that utilizes frequency response analysis (FRA) to extract the real and imaginary impedance components of the biosensor. Two computationally intensive operations, the multiplication and integration required by the FRA algorithm, are performed by an in-channel dual-slope multiplying ADC in the mixed-signal domain resulting in minimal area and power consumption. Multiplication of the input current by a digital coefficient is implemented by modulating the counter-controlled duration of the charging phase of the ADC. Integration is implemented by accumulating output digital bits in the ADC counter over multiple input samples. The 1.05 mm×1.6 mm prototype fabricated in a 0.13 μm standard CMOS technology has been validated in prostate cancer DNA detection. Each channel occupies an area of only 0.06 mm² and consumes 42 μW of power from a 1.2 V supply.
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