Age, Gender, Race, and Associations With Kidney Failure Following Living Kidney Donation
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INTRODUCTION: Our previous reports suggested that African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following kidney donation when compared with white counterparts. We sought information on age, gender, and race of kidney donors to determine which groups were over-represented on the kidney transplant waiting list. METHODS: We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) database for former donors who were subsequently placed on the kidney transplant waiting list. Information was retrieved on race, gender, age at donation, years between donation and listing, and diagnosis leading to ESRD. Comparisons were made to all kidney donors between 1988 and 2006 using chi-square testing. RESULTS: In this study, 126 individual kidney donors entered the kidney transplant waiting list. Fifty of the 126 (40%) were AA (P < .0001 compared with all donors, 13% AA). For both AA and whites, male donors and those who donated before age 35 made up a larger proportion of donors on the waiting list than would be expected by their proportion of overall donors. CONCLUSION: AA, males, and young donors may be at higher risk for kidney failure in the years following kidney donation. Mechanisms of increased risk are unclear but deserve further scrutiny. Our data are limited by the small number of patients developing kidney failure, the lack of complete follow-up on all living kidney donors, and the possibility that older donors with kidney failure were not listed because of death or other medical conditions. We believe that discussion of long-term risks may be different for various subgroups, especially for young AA kidney donors.
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