Exercise results in the rapid remodeling of skeletal muscle. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity vs. translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy. We also examine whether high-intensity sprinting-type exercise promotes changes in protein turnover that lead to hypertrophy or merely a change in mitochondrial content. Finally, we propose novel areas for future study that will fill existing knowledge gaps in the fields of translational research and exercise science.