The development of new types of high-speed photodetectors and techniques to incorporate these detectors into integrated optical structures are reported in this paper. Schottky-barrier detectors with an interdigital electrode configuration have been fabricated on commercially available silicon-on-sapphire substrates. Response times of <30 ps have been measured for wavelengths from infrared to the ultraviolet. These experimental results agree well with a supporting numerical model of these detectors. Using the same electrode configuration, we have fabricated photoconductive detectors on bulk silicon and germanium-on-gallium arsenide substrates. These have slower response times, on the order of a nanosecond, but demonstrate a good responsivity of approximately 1.5 A∙W−1. Using a modified electrode configuration, we have fabricated an integrated detector array on silicon, combining a glass waveguide channel with each detector element for the efficient delivery of an optical input signal.