Omentectomy added to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a randomized, controlled trial
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BACKGROUND: Excess visceral adipose tissue predicts for incipient diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Human data are mixed regarding the benefits of selective visceral adipose tissue reduction. We investigated the effects of omentectomy added to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose homeostasis and lipids, inflammatory markers, and adipokines 90 days postoperatively in nondiabetic patients at the Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital and Oregon Health and Science University (Portland, OR). METHODS: A single-blind, randomized study of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass plus omentectomy versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone in 28 subjects (7 men and 21 women). The groups were matched at baseline for gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). The eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, BMI ≥40 and <50 kg/m(2) without co-morbid conditions or BMI ≥35 and <50 kg/m(2) with co-morbid conditions. The primary outcome measures were changes in the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. The secondary measures were BMI and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin, total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. RESULTS: After surgery, the BMI decreased significantly in both groups and was not different at the follow-up point. Although many outcome parameters improved with weight loss in both groups postoperatively, only the omentectomy group experienced statistically significant decreases in fasting glucose (P < .05), total (P = .004) and very-low-density lipoprotein (P = .001) cholesterol, and an increase in the high-molecular-weight/total adiponectin ratio (P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: Omentectomy added to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass results in favorable changes in glucose homeostasis, lipid levels, and adipokine profile at 90 days postoperatively. These data support the hypothesis that selective ablation of visceral adipose tissue conveys metabolic benefits in nondiabetic humans.
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