To study the clinical phenotypes of centromeric proteins (CENP)-A- and CENP-B-positive patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to compare them to anticentromere antibody (ACA)-positive and negative SSc patients.
Sera samples were collected from 802 patients with SSc enrolled in a multicenter cohort study. Antibodies to CENP-A and B were detected by ELISA, and ACA by indirect immunofluorescence. Associations with clinical and other serological manifestations of SSc were investigated.
CENP-A antibodies were detected in 276 (34%), CENP-B in 286 (36%), and ACA in 279 (35%) patients. Patients having ACA, CENP-A, and/or CENP-B resembled each other and differed from the remainder of the cohort in the following respects: older chronologically and at disease onset; more commonly women; more likely to have limited disease and lower skin scores; less likely to have finger ulcers, digital tuft resorption, or finger contractures; more likely to have pulmonary hypertension; less likely to have interstitial lung disease, scleroderma renal crisis, inflammatory arthritis, and inflammatory myositis; and having lower overall disease severity. CENP-A and/or B status was predictive of the extent of skin involvement over time. Patients with limited disease who were CENP-A-negative at baseline were more likely to progress to diffuse disease compared to CENP-A-positive patients (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.37, 4.85, p = 0.004).
Clinical immunology laboratories are increasingly using high-throughput ELISA tests for CENP antibodies, with or without ACA detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The phenotype of CENP-A and/or B-positive patients is generally similar to that associated with ACA.