Phase-field simulations of velocity selection in rapidly solidified binary alloys
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Time-dependent simulations of two-dimensional isothermal Ni-Cu dendrites are simulated using a phase-field model solved with a finite-difference adaptive mesh refinement technique. Dendrite tip velocity selection is examined and found to exhibit a transition between two markedly different regimes as undercooling is increased. At low undercooling, the dendrite tip growth rate is consistent with the kinetics of the classical Stefan problem, where the interface is assume to be in local equilibrium. At high undercooling, the growth velocity selected approaches a linear dependence on melt undercooling, consistent with the continuous growth kinetics of Aziz and with a one-dimensional steady-state phase-field asymptotic analysis of Ahmad [Phys. Rev. E 58, 3436 (1998)]. Our simulations are also consistent with other previously observed behaviors of dendritic growth as undercooling is increased. These include the transition of dendritic morphology to absolute stability and nonequilibrium solute partitioning. Our results show that phase-field models of solidification, which inherently contain a nonzero interface width, can be used to study the dynamics of complex solidification phenomena involving both equilibrium and nonequilibrium interface growth kinetics.
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