The CHORUS (Cerivastatin in Heart Outcomes in Renal Disease: Understanding Survival) protocol: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with esrd.
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The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin)-mediated lowering of serum cholesterol has been associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest that additional non-lipid lowering effects (eg, endothelial stabilization, anti-inflammatory, antithrombogenic) may be important in modulating their effectiveness. Dyslipidemia is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and hemodialysis patients have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cerivastatin, a new statin with powerful low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering capabilities, possesses some unique non-LDL-C-mediated properties that may contribute to a reduction of coronary events in the patient with ESRD. The primary objective of this multicenter multinational study of 1,054 hemodialysis patients is to compare 2 years of treatment with cerivastatin (0.4 mg/d) versus placebo on the composite clinical event rate of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ischemic stroke, and the need for coronary arterial bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures in these patients. Changes in lipids, inflammatory proteins including heat stable C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), oncostatin-M, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as markers of cardiac muscle pathology, such as troponin I and troponin T, will be assessed in a subset of patients. This study is the first of its kind to assess the effect of a statin on the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in an incident hemodialysis population. It will determine whether treatment with cerivastatin can effectively reduce the significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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