Intravenous proton pump inhibitor therapy: a rationale for use.
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used widely in the management of acid-related disorders and, for the majority of patients, oral therapy is highly effective. Not all patients with acid-related disorders respond completely to standard, once-daily PPI therapy, but most nonresponders will generally respond to an increase in the dose or frequency of PPI therapy. At equivalent doses, oral and intravenous (IV) PPIs produce comparable acid suppression; thus there are very few clinical indications for IV PPI therapy. IV PPIs are an appropriate substitute for oral PPIs, at an equivalent dose, for patients with, for example, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulceration, or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, who cannot take oral medication. For patients with nonvariceal, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, profound acid suppression (gastric pH . 6.0) optimizes clot stability and reduces the risk of rebleeding; this is achieved most effectively with an initial IV PPI bolus followed by a continuous infusion. High-dose, IV PPI therapy is beneficial and cost-effective in patients who have a high-risk lesion at endoscopy and it should be preceded by effective endoscopic hemostasis if possible. IV PPIs, preoperatively and in the intensive care setting, effectively reduce gastric acidity, but there are no convincing data that this confers any significant clinical benefit compared with other therapeutic strategies.
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