- External splinting of the trachea has been used alone or in combination with aortopexy for the treatment of severe tracheomalacia. The authors describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had a Marlex mesh splint placed because of life-threatening primary tracheomalacia at 6 months of age. He presented at 12 years of age with a 5-month history of shortness of breath on exertion, dry cough, and audible wheeze. Radiological and endoscopic examinations showed near-complete obstruction of the orifice of the right mainstem bronchus by a large polypoid granuloma. Initially the patient was treated with endoscopic resection on two occasions, but the granuloma and bronchial obstruction recurred each time. He underwent a right thoracotomy, which showed that the lower edge of the mesh had eroded through the trachea wall and was acting as a nidus for granuloma formation. After removal of the mesh, the resulting defect at the site of erosion of the trachea was closed with a pericardial patch. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and the patient remains well 2 years after surgery. External splinting of the trachea has been shown to be effective in the treatment of complicated tracheomalacia, but one must be aware of the potential long-term complications, as demonstrated in this case.