Effects of Ramipril on Coronary Events in High-Risk Persons
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BACKGROUND: In trials of patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure, ACE inhibitor use was unexpectedly associated with reduced myocardial infarction (MI). Using the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial data, we tested prospectively whether ramipril, an ACE inhibitor, could reduce coronary events and revascularization procedures among patients with normal left ventricular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the HOPE trial, 9297 high-risk men and women, >/=55 years of age with previous cardiovascular disease or diabetes plus 1 risk factor, were randomly assigned to ramipril (up to 10 mg/d), vitamin E (400 IU/d), their combination, or matching placebos. During the mean follow-up of 4.5 years, there were 482 (10.4%) patients with clinical MI and unexpected cardiovascular death in the ramipril group compared with 604 (12.9%) in the placebo group [relative risk reduction (RRR), 21% (95% CI) (11,30); P<0.0003]. Ramipril was associated with a trend toward less fatal MI and unexpected death [4.0% versus 4.7%; RRR, 16% (-3, 31)] and with a significant reduction in nonfatal MI [5.6% versus 7.2%; RRR, 23% (9,34)]. Risk reductions in MI were documented in participants taking or not taking beta-blockers, lipid lowering, and/or antiplatelet agents. Although ramipril had no impact on hospitalizations for unstable angina [11.9% versus 12.2%; RRR, 3% (-9,14)], it reduced the risk of worsening and new angina [27.2% versus 30.0%; RRR, 12% (5,18); P<0.0014] and coronary revascularizations [12.5% versus 14.8%; RRR, 18%; (8,26) P<0.0005]. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-risk cohort, ramipril reduced the risk of MI, worsening and new angina, and the occurrence of coronary revascularizations.
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