Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with angina and heart failure in the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) Programme
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AIMS: To investigate the relationship between angina pectoris and fatal and non-fatal clinical outcomes in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction (HF-REF and HF-PEF, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 7599 patients in the CHARM program, 5408 had ischaemic heart disease; 3855 had HF-REF (ejection fraction ≤45%) and 1553 had HF-PEF. These patients were separated into three groups: no history of angina, previous angina, and current angina. Three coronary outcomes were examined: fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI); MI or hospitalization for unstable angina (UA); and MI, UA or coronary revascularization. The composite heart failure outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (HFH) was also analysed, along with its components and all-cause mortality. New York Heart Association functional class was worse in both HF-REF and HF-PEF patients with current angina compared with patients without angina (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005 respectively), despite similar clinical examination findings and ejection fraction. Patients with current angina had a higher risk of all three coronary outcomes (adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.8-3.1) than those without angina but did not have a higher risk of heart failure outcomes or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: In patients with heart failure current angina is associated with significantly more functional limitation and a higher risk of coronary events, across the spectrum of left ventricular ejection fraction.
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