Methodological background and strategy for the 2012−2013 updated consensus definitions and clinical practice guidelines from the abdominal compartment society
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The Abdominal Compartment Society (www.wsacs.org) previously created highly cited Consensus Definitions/Management Guidelines related to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Implicit in this previous work, was a commitment to regularly reassess and update in relation to evolving research. Two years preceding the Fifth World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, an International Guidelines committee began preparation. An oversight/steering committee formulated key clinical questions regarding IAH/ /ACS based on polling of the Executive to redundancy, structured according to the Patient, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) format. Scientific consultations were obtained from Methodological GRADE experts and a series of educational teleconferences were conducted to educate scientific review teams from among the wscacs. org membership. Each team conducted systematic or structured reviews to identify relevant studies and prepared evidence summaries and draft Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) recommendations. The evidence and draft recommendations were presented and debated in person over four days. Updated consensus definitions and management statements were derived using a modified Delphi method. A writingcommittee subsequently compiled the results utilizing frequent Internet discussion and Delphi voting methods to compile a robust online Master Report and a concise peer-reviewed summarizing publication. A dedicated Paediatric Guidelines Subcommittee reviewed all recommendations and either accepted or revised them for appropriateness in children. Of the original 12 IAH/ACS definitions proposed in 2006, three (25%) were accepted unanimously, with four (33%) accepted by > 80%, and four (33%) accepted by > 50%, but required discussion to produce revised definitions. One (8%) was rejected by > 50%. In addition to previous 2006 definitions, the panel also defined the open abdomen, lateralization of the abdominal musculature, polycompartment syndrome, abdominal compliance, and suggested a refined open abdomen classification system. Recommendations were possible regarding intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement, approach to sustained IAH, philosophy of protocolized IAP management and same-hospital-stay fascial closure, use of decompressive laparotomy, and negative pressure wound therapy. Consensus suggestions included use of non-invasive therapies for treating IAH/ACS, considering body position and IAP, damage control resuscitation, prophylactic open abdomen usage, and prudence in early biological mesh usage. No recommendations were made for the use of diuretics, albumin, renal replacement therapies, and utilizing abdominal perfusion pressure as a resuscitation-endpoint. Collaborating Methodological Guideline Development and Clinical Experts produced Consensus Definitions/Clinical Management statements encompassing the most contemporary evidence. Data summaries now exist for clinically relevant IAH/ACS questions, which will facilitate future scientific reanalysis.
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