Phase I trial of UCN-01 in combination with topotecan in patients with advanced solid cancers: a Princess Margaret Hospital Phase II Consortium study
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BACKGROUND: 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) inhibits serine-threonine kinases including the Ca2+ and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), CDKs 2, 4, 6, Chk-1 and PDK1. UCN-01 mediates distinct effects in vitro/in vivo: cell cycle arrest in G1, abrogation of G2 arrest by inhibiting chk1, induction of apoptosis and potentiation of cytotoxicity of S-phase-active chemotherapeutics including the topoisomerase 1 inhibitor topotecan (T). This phase I study was designed to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase 2 dose (RPTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of T and UCN-01 in patients with refractory solid tumors. DESIGN: Both agents were administered every 21 days intravenously through central venous access in escalating doses to eligible patients. On day 1, following antiemetic prophylaxis with dexamethasone and a serotonin type 3(A) receptor (5HT3) inhibitor, UCN-01 was infused over 3 h, followed by T infused over 30 min. On days 2-5, patients received T only. UCN-01 doses were reduced by 50% in cycles 2 and beyond because of its prolonged half-life. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were entered in three cohorts: Dose Level (DL) 1 (UCN-01 70 mg/m2, T 0.75 mg/m2), three patients; DL 2 (UCN-01 70 mg/m2, T 1.0 mg/m2), 24 patients; DL 3 (UCN-01 90 mg/m2, T 1.0 mg/m2), six patients. All but three patients were PS 0 or 1, median age was 54 years (range, 29-72), 91% were female. Primary tumor types: ovary/peritoneal (23 patients), colon (three patients), salivary gland (two patients), others (five patients). All patients were eligible for adverse event (AE) analysis and 22 patients were eligible for survival and tumor response analysis. Two of six patients had dose limiting toxicity (DLT) at DL 3 (grade 3 N/V; grade 4 neutropenia with infection). One DLT was seen in one patient at DL 2, consisting of grade 4 leukopenia. This cohort was expanded and no further DLTs were observed. Most common drug-related AEs were mild (grade 1-2). Non-hematological grade 3-4 AEs consisted of transient hyperglycemia (4), infection (3), coagulation, fatigue, hypotension, nausea (2), hypomagnesemia, vomiting, headache (1). Hematologic toxicities occurred in 100% of patients. Grade 3-4 hematologic abnormalities included neutropenia (16, including three with infection), leukopenia (11), lymphopenia (7), thrombocytopenia (5). Best response for 22 evaluable patients was PD (8), SD for at least six cycles (12), PR (1: carcinoma of ovary, dose level 2) and one not assessable. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed the prolonged half-life of UCN-01 of approximately 15 days. CONCLUSIONS: DLT was observed at DL 3 and RPTD was determined to be DL 2. To date, this combination has been relatively well tolerated with some preliminary evidence of efficacy. A phase II study of this combination in patients with ovarian cancer is underway.
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