Stroke prevention care delivery: Predictors of risk factor management outcomes
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BACKGROUND: Internationally, the development and implementation of stroke care guidelines have resulted in the evolution of stroke prevention outpatient clinics designed to accelerate patient access to treatment and behavioral risk reduction following transient ischemic attack or stroke. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which selected demographic, social-psychological, physiological, and adherence characteristics predicted achievement of blood pressure and glucose targets in a group of patients referred to a Canadian stroke prevention clinic with confirmed transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke and hypertension and/or diabetes. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 313, English speaking, adult patients who were referred from family or emergency department physicians to a stroke prevention clinic provided demographic data and received social-psychological screening testing at intake. Of these, 93 participants who met criteria of confirmed TIA or stroke plus hypertension and/or diabetes were identified as the study group. Seventy-seven of study group participants completed a 6-month follow-up. METHODS: Admission screening tests included the Modified and Mini-Mental State Examinations, Trail Making Test, Clock Drawing Test, a medication self-efficacy scale, the Lubben Social Network Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Family physician follow-up was ascertained 4-8 weeks after intake. At approximately 6 months after the initial screening measures, 77 study group participants completed additional measures of adherence, blood pressure and/or glycated hemoglobin. RESULTS: Transient ischemic attack was confirmed in 58% and stroke in 42% of the study group. Mean age was 69 years (SD=11); 53% were male; 97% had hypertension; and 25% were diabetic; some had both. Twenty-three percent were not followed-up by family practitioners. At 6-month follow-up, 97% reported ≥80% adherence to medication; only 57% met treatment targets. A logistic regression analysis identified three independent predictors of achieving blood pressure and/or glucose targets: self-efficacy expectations (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.03-2.54; p=0.04), Mini-Mental State (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.54; p=0.009); and self-reported adherence (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29; p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Three simple screening measures identified patients at increased risk of not achieving clinical risk factor management targets.
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