One subpopulation of amacrine in the turtle retina was shown to contain met-enkephalin by means of immunocytochemistry, and another was demonstrated to have a high-affinity uptake system for [3H]-dopamine by means of tutoradiography. Although the amacrine soma size, density, and distribution of their neurites in IPL substrata was similar in retinas in which met-enkephalin and dopamine were localized, combined light microscope immuncytochemistry-autoradiography demonstrated that these two neurotransmitter systems did not coexist in the same cells. Because the two amacrine cell subtypes ramify in the same IPL substrata, neuronal interaction between them is possible. Release experiments showed that the potassium-induced release of [3H]-dopamine from the superfused turtle retina was reduced by 40% when enkephlian was added to the superfusate. The inhibition of [3H]-dopamine release could be blocked by the addition of naloxone. The addition of enkephalin had no effect of the potassium-induced release of [3H]-GABA from the superfused retina. These findings suggest that an enkephalinergic modulation of the dopaminergic amacrine cell system exits in the turtle retina.