Respiratory hospitalizations and respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in special populations
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Palivizumab utilization, compliance, and outcomes were examined in infants with preexisting medical diseases within the Canadian Registry Database (CARESS) to aid in developing guidelines for potential "at-risk" infants in the future. Infants who received ≥1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2010 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons at 29 sites were recruited and utilization, compliance, and outcomes related to respiratory infection/illness (RI) events were collected monthly. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for premature infants ≤35 completed weeks gestational age (GA) who met standard approval criteria (group 1) compared to those with medical disorders (group 2) using Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Of 7,339 registry infants, 4,880 were in group 1 and 952 in group 2, which included those with Down syndrome (20.3%), upper airway anomalies (18.7%), pulmonary diseases (13.3%), and cystic fibrosis (12.3%). Group 2 were older at enrollment (10.2 ± 9.2 vs. 3.5 ± 3.1 months, p < 0.0005), had higher GA (35.9 ± 6.0 vs. 31.0 ± 5.4 weeks, p < 0.0005), and were less compliant with treatment intervals (69.4% vs. 72.6%, p = 0.048). A greater proportion of group 2 infants were hospitalized for RI (9.0% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.0005) and RSV (2.4% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.003) (unadjusted). Being in group 2 was associated with an increased risk of RI (HR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.5-2.5, p < 0.0005), but not RSV hospitalization (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.8, p = 0.106). In infants receiving palivizumab, those with underlying medical disorders, though not currently approved for prophylaxis, are at higher risk for RI events compared with preterm infants. However, risk of RSV hospitalizations is similar.
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