Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Among 33–35 Weeks’ Gestational Age Infants Born During Multiple Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasons
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BACKGROUND: Moderate-late preterm infants, 33-35 weeks' gestational age (wGA), are at increased risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH). The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of RSVH in moderate-late preterm infants. METHODS: A pooled analysis was conducted on RSVH from 7 prospective, observational studies in the Northern Hemisphere from 2000 to 2014. Infants' 33-35 wGA without comorbidity born during the respiratory syncytial virus season who did not receive respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis were enrolled. Data for the first confirmed RSVH during the season (+1 month) were analyzed. Incidence and hospitalization rate per 100 patient-seasons, intensive care unit admission and length of stay (LOS), oxygen support, mechanical ventilation and overall hospital LOS were assessed. RESULTS: The pooled analysis comprised 7,820 infants; 267 experienced a confirmed RSVH at a median age of 8.4 weeks. The crude pooled RSVH incidence rate was 3.41% and the rate per 100 patient-seasons was 4.52. Median hospital LOS was 5.7 days. A total of 22.2% of infants required intensive care unit admission for a median LOS of 8.3 days. A total of 70.4% received supplemental oxygen support for a median of 4.9 days, and 12.7% required mechanical ventilation for a median of 4.8 days. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of RSVH in moderate-late, 33-35 weeks' wGA preterm infants without comorbidities born during the viral season in Northern Hemisphere countries is substantial. Severe cases required prolonged and invasive supportive therapy.
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