The need for inclusion of sex and age of onset variables in genetic association studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder: Overview
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous mental disorder that significantly impairs an individual's functioning. The candidate gene approach has proven to be a useful tool in investigating potential risk genes for OCD, but genetic studies have been largely inconclusive. Etiologically distinct forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder based on sex and age of onset have been identified, yet many genetic studies fail to examine the association by these subtypes. Due to the sexually dimorphic nature of the disorder, positive associations have been found with OCD in males only, suggesting the potential for identifying risk genes that contribute to OCD in women, such as perinatal OCD. This review includes a brief overview of the disorder and its subtypes, with a current update on candidate genes that may contribute to OCD using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome wide association studies (GWAS).
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