Paper-Based, Hand-Drawn Free Chlorine Sensor with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)
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The concentration of free chlorine used for disinfecting drinking water, recreational water, and food processing water is critical for environmental and human health conditions, and should be controlled within stipulated ranges. This report, for the first time, describes a paper-based electrochemical free chlorine sensor fabricated by hand-drawing. The electrical resistivity of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) chemoresistor increases when it is exposed to free chlorine in water due to oxidation reactions. Because the relative change of the electrical resistance represents the sensor's response, the sensor can be fabricated by hand-drawing with different shapes and dimensions. The fabrication steps are all at room temperature, require no instrumentation or equipment, and can be carried out by untrained personnel. The fabricated sensor is mechanically stable, reusable, has a wide sensing range, and can accurately measure free chlorine concentrations in real water samples. Therefore, the low-cost, hand-drawn free chlorine sensor is of great significance for water quality monitoring in less developed areas where fabrication facilities, analytical equipment, and trained personnel are limited, but the need for analytical devices is critical. In addition to the free chlorine sensor demonstrated in this study, other types of PEDOT:PSS-based sensors and electronic devices can be fabricated by the developed hand-drawing process.
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