Modulation of vascular function by perivascular adipose tissue: the role of endothelium and hydrogen peroxide
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates vascular contraction, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The possible involvement of endothelium (E) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Aortic rings from Wistar rats were prepared with both PVAT and E intact (PVAT+ E+), with either PVAT or E removed (PVAT- E+, or PVAT+ E-), or with both removed (PVAT- E-) for functional studies. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured. KEY RESULTS: Contraction to phenylephrine and 5-HT respectively was highest in PVAT- E-, lowest in PVAT+ E+, and intermediate in PVAT+ E- or PVAT- E+. In bioassay experiments, transferring bathing solution incubated with a PVAT+ ring (donor) to a PVAT- ring (recipient) induced relaxation in the recipient. This relaxation was abolished by E removal, NO synthase inhibition, scavenging of NO, high extracellular K+, or blockade of calcium-dependent K+ channels (K(Ca)). The solution stimulated NO production in isolated endothelial cells and in PVAT- E+ rings. In E- rings, the contraction to phenylephrine of PVAT+ rings but not PVAT- rings was enhanced by catalase or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, but reduced by superoxide dismutase and tiron. In PVAT- E- rings, H2O2 attenuated phenylephrine-induced contraction. This effect was counteracted by sGC inhibition. NO donor and H2O2 exhibited additive inhibition of the contraction to phenylephrine in PVAT- E- rings. CONCLUSION: PVAT exerts its anti-contractile effects through two distinct mechanisms: (1) by releasing a transferable relaxing factor which induces endothelium-dependent relaxation through NO release and subsequent K(Ca) channel activation, and (2) by an endothelium-independent mechanism involving H2O2 and subsequent activation of sGC.
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