Fatty acid transport proteins are present on the plasma membrane and are involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into skeletal muscle. The present study determined whether acute endurance exercise increased the plasma membrane content of fatty acid transport proteins in rat and human skeletal muscle and whether the increase was accompanied by an increase in long-chain fatty acid transport in rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen subjects cycled for 120 min at ∼60 ± 2% V̇o2 peak. Two skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and again following cycling. In a parallel study, eight Sprague-Dawley rats ran for 120 min at 20 m/min, whereas eight rats acted as nonrunning controls. Giant sarcolemmal vesicles were prepared, and protein content of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm was measured in human and rat vesicles and whole muscle homogenate. Palmitate uptake was measured in the rat vesicles. In human muscle, plasma membrane FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein contents increased 75 and 20%, respectively, following 120 min of exercise. In rat muscle, plasma membrane FAT/CD36 and FABPpm increased 20 and 30%, respectively, and correlated with a 30% increase in palmitate transport following 120 min of running. These data suggest that the translocation of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm to the plasma membrane in rat skeletal muscle is related to the increase in fatty acid transport and oxidation that occurs with endurance running. This study is also the first to demonstrate that endurance cycling induces an increase in plasma membrane FAT/CD36 and FABPpm content in human skeletal muscle, which is predicted to increase fatty acid transport.