Venous thromboembolism in association with features of the metabolic syndrome
- Additional Document Info
- View All
BACKGROUND: Central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and chronic hypertension--features of the metabolic syndrome--have been individually associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, whether each of these factors additively increases the risk of VTE is uncertain. AIM: To determine whether features of the metabolic syndrome independently increase the risk of VTE. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study derived from the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 2 (HOPE-2) randomized clinical trial. SETTING: One hundred and forty-five clinical centres in 13 countries. METHODS: We studied 5522 adults aged > or =55 years with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. At enrollment, 35% had 0-1 features of the metabolic syndrome, 30% had two, 24% had three and 11% had four. We defined symptomatic VTE as an objectively confirmed new episode of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: VTE occurred in 88 individuals during a median 5.0 years of follow-up. The incidence rate of VTE (per 100 person-years) was 0.30 with 0-1 features, 0.36 with two features, 0.38 with three features and 0.40 with four features of the metabolic syndrome (trend p = 0.43). Relative to the presence of 0-1 features of the metabolic syndrome, the adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI) for VTE was 1.22 (0.71-2.08) with two features, 1.25 (0.70-2.24) with three features, and 1.26 (0.59-2.69) with four features. DISCUSSION: The number of features of the metabolic syndrome present was not a clinically important risk factor for VTE in older adults with vascular arterial disease.
has subject area