Inhibition of factor X, factor V and prothrombin activation by the bis(lactobionic acid amide) LW10082
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The minimum concentrations of heparin, dermatan sulfate, hirudin, and D-Phe-Pro-ArgCH2Cl required to delay the onset of prothrombin activation in contact-activated plasma also prolong the lag phases associated with both factor X and factor V activation. Heparin and dermatan sulfate prolong the lag phases associated with the activation of the three proteins by catalyzing the inhibition of endogenously generated thrombin. Thrombin usually activates factor V and factor VIII during coagulation. The smallest fragment of heparin able to catalyze thrombin inhibition by antithrombin III is an octadecasaccharide with high affinity for antithrombin III. In contrast, a dermatan sulfate hexasaccharide with high affinity for heparin cofactor II can catalyze thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II. A highly sulfated bis(lactobionic acid amide), LW10082 (Mr 2288), which catalyzes thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II and has both antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities, has been synthesized. In this study, we determined how the minimum concentration of LW10082 required to delay the onset of intrinsic prothrombin activation achieved this effect. We demonstrate that, like heparin and dermatan sulfate, LW10082 delays the onset of intrinsic prothrombin activation by prolonging the lag phase associated with both factor X and factor V activation. In addition, LW10082 is approximately 25% as effective as heparin and 10 times as effective as dermatan sulfate in its ability to delay the onset of prothrombin activation. The strong anticoagulant action of LW10082 is consistent with previous reports which show that the degree of sulfation is an important parameter for the catalytic effectiveness of sulfated polysaccharides on thrombin inhibition.
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