Topical bovine thrombin has been associated with immune responses and anecdotal reports of coagulopathy. This open-label study assessed the impact on clinical hemostasis of human antibodies to bovine thrombin (aBT) or factor V/Va (aBV/Va) in response to topical bovine thrombin (THROMBIN-JMI) in patients both with and without preexisting anti-bovine antibodies. Noninferiority analysis assessed primary endpoint for mean shift from baseline activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 48 hours postsurgery; secondary endpoints included changes from baseline antibodies/titers and coagulation parameters through 8 weeks postsurgery. A total of 550 patients underwent surgery with THROMBIN-JMI utilized at investigator’s discretion. Adjusted mean aPTT change in (+)aBT/(+)THROMBIN-JMI cohort was greater than (-)aBT/(-)THROMBIN-JMI cohort; 4.67-second upper confidence bound exceeded 4.5-second margin (based on assumed mean aPTT of 30 seconds) and noninferiority was not met. Post hoc analysis indicated noninferiority would have been met had noninferiority margin been set prior at relative 15% of actual baseline aPTT. Antibodies/titers were unchanged by THROMBIN-JMI exposure 48 hours postsurgery and unrelated to postsurgical changes in coagulation. Thus, THROMBIN-JMI exposure in patients with/without preexisting aBT or aBV/Va does not alter hemostasis.