Surgical Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
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Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder in which the inappropriate elevation in serum parathyroid hormone level results in hypercalcemia. Most cases are caused by a single adenomatous parathyroid gland and less than 15% are caused by multiglandular disease. The incidence of PHPT appears to be increasing. More patients are being identified earlier and often before symptoms develop. Parathyroidectomy is the only definitive management; with it, the patient can achieve biochemical homeostasis and symptom relief, and sequelae are prevented. Even for asymptomatic patients with PHPT, there is a growing trend to recommend early surgical intervention. Controversy continues regarding the role of and reliance on various technologies, such as preoperative localization imaging, intraoperative parathyroid hormone level measurements, and minimally invasive surgery. Although both traditional bilateral 4-gland exploration and targeted approaches are accepted surgical techniques, there is a growing trend in unilateral targeted operations often using these technologies. Regardless of surgical approach, the expected success rate is greater than 95%. This article provides an overview of the contemporary surgical management of PHPT.
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